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Slides used during a visit of The Norwegian Arts Council to our office to exchange knowledge and ideas around digital heritage. Topics discussed: national policies, national infrastructure, standards, best practices, digital preservation, business model innovation for cultural heritage and national aggregators.
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  • 1. The north axisWhat the Norwegians can learn from the Dutch and vice versa The DEN Foundation Presentations to NORSK KULTURRÅD 23th of November, 2011
  • 2. 1. Introduction2. A short history of digitisation (Marco)3. The DEN foundation (Monika)4. THE BASICS (Robert)5. Capita selecta 1. Knowledge base (Wietske) 2. Digital preservation (Robert) 3. Business Model Innovation (Marco) 4. Dutch national aggregator (Marco)
  • 3. From chain to cycle New media bring “a culture of mass self-communication in which people increasingly communicate to and through one another, rather than through formal media organisations like broadcasters and publishers”. “All research is becoming more interconnected, collaborative and networked. Science is increasingly driven by the analysis of large overlapping clouds of data.“ Charles Leadbeater, Cloud culture. Unesco Culture Cycle (2009)
  • 4. 2. A short history of digitisation in The Netherlands
  • 5. The context in The NetherlandsCollaboration at the national level Creative industry Education Government Science Virtueel Platform Kennisnet Forum Standaardisatie CATCH / CATCH+ BIS e-cultuur SURF CLARIN-NL IIP-Create Topics across heritage Business model Aggretation and access Copyright Policy making innovation NL-aggregators, STAP Werkgroep Auteursrechten OCW digitaliseringsoverleg Kennisland, TNO, Erfgoed2.0 FOBID/JC, Digitice Waterwolf, HU Utrecht Digital preservationNCDD, CCDD Collaboration within domains Quality assurance Archeo- Archives AV Librarie Monu- Museum logy s ments sErfgoed Nederland, RCE/KVCE‘Meten is weten’ RCE BRAIN AVA-net KB RCE NMV CAA-NL ACDD B&G SIOB LEU SIMIN Training STAP NIMk Bibliotheek. Museum- NA / RHC’s nl registerGO, Reinwardt, UL/BDMS FOBID LCM UKB Bijzcol Qmus Funding Fondsen, Provincies, Agentschap-NL
  • 6. Beleid OCW Digitization project of memory organisations should contribute to the Digital Collection of The Netherlands and reuse existing infrastructure. Only then digital resources will be as accessible as possible and reusable for all.
  • 7. Digitisation & Policy• 2006-2009• Criteria: – Innovative – Public Access – Knowledge dissimination• 120 Information Plans• 40 digitization projects• Comply or Explain on ICT
  • 8. An information plan…• Helps institutions to make ICT an integral part of theiroverall policy.• Supports standardisation by making it a choice, a strategy,not a burden• Defines how to move from project driven digitisation topermanent services• Provides guidance for digital innovation: “always in beta”.
  • 9. Information plans vs. budget Source: www.numeric.ws
  • 10. Raad voor Cultuur (Innoveren, participeren)Breaking down of boardersFirst step towards breaking downexisting boarders is collaborationbetween the different networks ofmemory institutions. A prerequisite forsuccess is the willingness to share allavailable Knowledge and look forvaluable crossovers between domains.And above all to name collaboration ascore element of all activities.
  • 11. Percentage digitised (N=98) Not necessary Is done Awaiting digitization
  • 12. How muchhas been digitised? Source: www.numeric.ws
  • 13. InnovatiesDigitale Diensten
  • 14. ‘Pro’‘amature’ Institution Users
  • 15. Evolution of digitisation User studies Highlights Project planning PLAN Heavily used ACT DO collectionsInformation plans CHECK Benchmarking Mass Digitisation Evaluation
  • 16. “Libraries were never warehouses of books.They have always been and always will becenters of learning.” (Robert Darnton, The case for books)
  • 17. Raad voor Cultuur(Netwerken van betekenis) The focus shouldn’t be with large stand alone projects. In order to build sustainable networks, collaboration should be obligatory and we have to commit to standards for access and description. By doing so, available cultural information can be reused by all, be it organisations or consumers.
  • 18. Who When Dutch Jewry Beeldbank WOII RKD-artists StamboomNederland WieWasWie Archeos Digitale Atlas Geschiedenis Genlias Nederlandse fotografen Nationale referentiecollectie Biografisch portaal DBNG DBNA Papua portal Archieven.nl Bibliopolis Thematis Databank Digitale Dagbladen Bibliotheek.nl nu-en-toen Geheugen van Nederland Verteld verleden Labour History Index Multimedian pilot e-culture Beelden voor de toekomst / ED*T Beeldbank NA Staten Generaal Content Mashup Platform Museumkennis Mijnadres.org Unicum Dendrochronologie Goudanet MichaelPlus-NL WatWasWaar KICH Cultuurhistorie op internet Collectiewijzer Maritiem Digitaal Atlas Ruimtelijke Kwaliteit Musip Sgraffito in 3D Wumkus Picarta SVCN Thuis in Brabant CRVa Biblio Sacra Aziatische keramiek MijnGelderland Reliwiki Volksverhalenbank Zuid-Hollandse collecties digitaalWhere Allemolens.nl Cinema Context What
  • 19. Offer and demandUntil now, digitisation has very much beena ‘push’ activity. The heritage institutionsdecide what, when and how their collectionswill be digitised.But how do we learn from the digitalbehaviour of our (potential) users?
  • 20. Where are we know• Digitization is expensive. (Digitizing remaining heritage in Europe would cost 100 miljard euro).• Digitalization is complex. There is not a ‘one size fits all’- approach.• We put a lot of effort in innovation, less in truly embedding and sustainable solutions for the sector.• We’re facing backlogs in registration. As a result content is not as usable as it should.
  • 21. Niveaus erfgoeddiensten Informatiebestanden met (semantische) zoekmogelijkheid in zowel metadata als in Enriched object volledige (gestructureerde) inhoud en achterliggende (data/video-) bestanden, vgl. wetenschappelijke informatie-systemen, WieWasWie etc. (knowldge system) Content searchable Informatiebestanden met zoekmogelijkheid in zowel metadata als in volledige inhoud (niveau Google), vgl. Digitale Dagbladen, EDBO, Bibliotheek.nl (index / search) Digital reproductions Informatiebestanden met zoekmogelijkheid op object en centrale raadpleging van objecten, vgl. Geheugen van Nederland, WatWasWaar. (portal) Thumbnails Zoekindexen van metadata met links naar buiten, vgl. Europeana. (aggregation) Relations (hierarchy, related) Traditionele bibliografieën en centrale catalogi (bijv. STCN) (catalogues) (Basic)des- criptions Collection registration in institutions (vgl. Immix) (registration) Heritage Dutch Collection (assets)
  • 22. Organizing ‘shared services’- European projects- Innovation programs Digitization -Memory organisations- Creative industry - Companies - Mass digital.- Innovatieve instellingen - On demand- DEN R&D Aggregation -Beeld en Geluid / - Innovation - Geographical RCE / DCN - Knowledge -STAP - Thematic Sharing -Bibliotheek.nl-DEN -Geheugen van-Digitice Nederland-Working group - Provincescopyright Shared services Data Support management - Standards - Local - Copyrights - External/cloud -NCDD (B&G/DANS/ KB/NA) -RCE Software - Market Services-Memory institutions development- (Creative) companies - Public (apps) - Open source-Bibliotheek.nl - B2B -CATCH / CATCH+ - Licences - Market
  • 23. Transition needed Audience cultural Comfort heritageProfessions zone Quality Efficiency Technology& Traditions Digitisation
  • 24. Digital Strategies for Heritage • Instutional change • Crowd sourcing and cocreation • Business for Heritage • Building a new public space
  • 25. DEN Foundation Knowledge Centre for Digital Heritage Meeting Arts Council Norway Monika Lechner,advisor @ DENNovember 23rd, 2011 [email protected]
  • 26. What is DEN?• DEN Foundation (“Digital Heritage Netherlands”) since 1999• National Knowledge Centre for Digital Heritage• Sponsored (entirely) by the Ministry of Education, Cultural Affairs and Science• Team of 12 people• DEN evolves (reinvents itself) every 4 years due to new governmental policy & based on evaluation & evolution of digitisation• New policy plan for 2013-2016 in the making
  • 27. What does DEN do? Core mission: Knowledge dissemination Share knowledge & experiences with ICT & good practise for digital heritage Support heritage institutions to improve their digital strategies and services  Quality assurance for digital heritage!  Encourage institutions to... ... invest in open technology ... create sustainable (services  Be aware of vendor lock in, (un)sustainable cloud services… ... use the same ICT-standards  Create 1 national Digital Heritage Collection
  • 28. Why do we need qualityassurance for digitization?
  • 29. Heritage = Information Objects
  • 30. Definition Digital Heritage‘Born digital’ heritageDigital by origin (e.g. electronic art, electronic archives,digital photographs).Digitised heritageArtefacts that (did) exist in the physical world;reproduced with digital technology (e.g. scansof paper objects, photographs of paintings,encoded audio or video, reconstructions of monuments).Digital information about cultural heritage objectsMetadata, x-rays of paintings, knowledge organisationsystems like thesauri and ontologys, etc.All three types have their own needsfor preservation and access
  • 31. This is not digitisation...
  • 32. This is digitisation! DEN Quality Cycle for digitisation Preparing Creating Describing PLAN Storing ACT (Policy) DO Accessing Presenting CHECK (Evaluation) Managing Sharing Preserving
  • 33. Josh Greenberg @DISH2009
  • 34. Analyse successful services
  • 35. Observe user behaviour
  • 36. Good digitisation:• Have a strategy for digital services (policy plan)• Build your own ICT knowledge (staff training)• Use an open infrastructure & support re-use• Know your(potential) users• Have a critical mind and the will to adapt constantly• Share your knowledge! (good & “better” practices)
  • 37. Knowledge dissemination Share your knowledge –Ewa Rozkosz CC BY SA http://www.flickr.com/photos/erozkosz/6003136440/
  • 38. Offline activitiesExpertmeetings (BASIS, Digital preservation, …) workshops, conferences www.dish.nlParticipation in… workgroups (e.g. Copyright)… steering committees (e.g. CATCH+)… stakeholders meetings (Persistent Identifiers)… European (research projects) (e.g. ENUMERATE)
  • 39. Europeana•DEN is a member of EuropeanaNET•DEN is a member of the core group for thetechnical development of Europeana•DEN promotes the standards chosen forEuropeana in the Netherlands• DEN provides knowledge about Europeana (aggregators)
  • 40. Monitoring & Research “A Future for our Digital Memory” Report on long-term preservation “Born-Digital Heritage” Report “Webstatistics Research” “Business Model Innovation” “Digital Facts” / More Digital Facts Numeric / ENUMERATE – Research on cost of digitisation – Development of a costmodel
  • 41. Online dissemination Knowledgebase | Blog | Social Media (LinkedIN, Twitter, …)
  • 42. Animations: In plain English
  • 43. Why use ICT-standards? Standardisation: not the goal in itself BUT means to a goal
  • 44. THE BASICSThe Heritage Essentials:Building a Succesful ICT StrategyTHE BASICS defines a set ofminimal requirementsfor digitisation.
  • 45. THE BASICSMinimal requirements for digitisation activities
  • 46. THE BASICS defines a set of minimal requirements fordigitization activities.Application of THE BASICS guarantees quality,interoperability and efficiency during the entiredigitization life cycle.These standards will be the building blocks for thefoundation of Digital Collection of the Netherlands andaggregation for Europeana
  • 47. THE BASICS contains 29 standardsSelection from the much bigger ICT register/knowledgebase of standards (271 standards) which is alsomaintained by DEN
  • 48. THE BASICS provides guidelines for the following topics(following the digitisation cycle as promoted by DEN):• findability or interoperability of digital data• digital preservation• creation of digital objects (pictorial, text, AV, geo)• description of digital objects• presentation of digital objects
  • 49. Self regulation: standards in The BASICS have beendetermined by cultural heritage institutes themselvesSelection of standards firstly by expert groupsFollowed by a fixed period I which memory institutionsmay have their say on the selected standards
  • 50. THE BASICS evaluated:• Standards themselves are not enough. More practical context needed (use cases)• THE BASICS might be used as means to audit a project or products of vendors• Knowledge level needed to understand THE BASICS considered high• Vendors play major role in project standardization of memory institutions
  • 51. The knowledge basewww.den.nl/digitaliseren Wietske van den Heuvel
  • 52. In a nutshell• Sharing practical knowledge• Providing information and tools• Overview of: – ICT standards and guidelines – Cultural heritage institutions – Digitisation projects – In-depth information about digitising cultural heritage
  • 53. Quality lifecycle as a basis Preparing Creating Describing PLAN Storing ACT DO Accessing Presenting CHECK Managing Sharing PreservingDEN Quality Cycle for digitisation
  • 54. Content cloud
  • 55. UsersCultural heritage institutions: – General management – Policy makers – Collection management – IT staff
  • 56. Addressing the userThree levels of information: – Orientation: basic information – Context: practical information – Focus: in depth information
  • 57. Showcase
  • 58. Gathering feedback• User research: – Online survey – User statistics – Interviews – Scenario’s• Advisory board
  • 59. Digital Preservation in theNetherlands and role of DEN
  • 60. Current situation in the cultural heritage sector• Major players have pioneering role: • National Archives • National Library • Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision • DANS (data archives for social sciences) • City archives of Amsterdam and Rotterdam• NCDD: Netherlands Coalition for Digital Preservation. Archives: ACDD, Cultural Heritage: CCDD
  • 61. DEN and digital preservation• THE BASICS for digital preservation (focus on organisational level)• Cost modelling• Role in NCDD (National Coalition for Digital Preservation) and CCDD (Cultural Coalition for Digital Preservation)
  • 62. Digital Preservation shortlist1. Policy2. Invest in knowlegde3. Selection4. Risk inventory of digital objects5. Redundant storage6. Refreshment of storage system7. Migrate or emulate strategies8. Born digital objects need extra care9. Metadata which describe form and content are essential
  • 63. Digital Preservation maturity model• Based on Charles Dollar maturity model• Different aspects of digital preservation (technical, organizational) covered• Institute receives “maturity score” for digital preservation
  • 64. Business Model Innovation
  • 65. Evolution of digitisation User studies Highlights Project planning PLAN Business Model Heavily used Innovation ACT DO collectionsInformation plans CHECK Benchmarking Mass Digitisation Evaluation
  • 66. Business Model Innovation Renewing the framework (or logic) used by an organisation for creating or increasing social and economic value
  • 67. BMI as management toolThe missing link
  • 68. Written and published byKennisland, DEN &Ministry of Culture (NL),December 2009Online available atwww.den.nl
  • 69. New value propositionsanalog ‘in house’digital ‘in house’ digital in a controlled network ‘out there’ on the web
  • 70. Ross Parry @DISH2009Source: Numeric Final Report, July 2009
  • 71. Tweet Mike EllisJosh Greenberg @DISH2009
  • 72. Profile of a web userBusiness Model Innovatie Cultureel Erfgoed,Kennisland/DEN, 2009
  • 73. For succesful transition… Source: Kennisland/DEN, 2009 ...it is imperative that we find the right ways to harmonise the needs of the users with what we have on offer... How do we do that?
  • 74. Business Model CanvassSource: Alex Osterwalder
  • 75. The traditional model
  • 76. A digital BM innovation
  • 77. Major obstacles for CH 1. Organisation 3. Copyright2. ICT-infrastructure 4. Revenue
  • 78. 1. Organisation: changing values Proven workflows - Acknowledge new trends Strong identities - Collaborate Standardisation - Diversify with new media Factual services - Stimulate creativity Authoritative - Service oriented Long term preservation - Short term flexibility Authenticity - User generated content Free / Public domain - New business models Enable full access - Respect copyright Be an expert - Be media literate ... - ...
  • 79. Pressures on traditions Audience cultural Comfort heritageProfessions zone Quality Efficiency Technology& Traditions Digitisation
  • 80. The biggest fear: no control
  • 81. 2. Open ICT-infrastructure
  • 82. 3. Clearing copyright
  • 83. 4. Creating revenue 5. Product bundle: trans-media combination of various sources of income 4. Digital branding: the heritage institution creating the reputation and building the brand 3. Digital curator: the heritage institution providing the context 2. Digital original: the heritage institution as a digital heritage broker 1. Original: the heritage institution creating the experience
  • 84. Kernadviezen EUUitwerking van 3 hoofdthema’s in Nederland1. Digitisation: organisation and funding • Planning: Metamorfoze • Monitoring: De Digitale Feiten / ENUMERATE • Economies of scale: Prestoprime & Impact Competence centres • PPP: Business Model Innovation Cultural Heritage2. Digitisation and online accessibility of public domain material • Improve access: NL-Aggregators • PRIMA-projecten (WieWasWie, Kimomo, CATCH+) • Conditions: Werkgroep Auteursrechten i.o. • Europeana: sterk netwerk3. Digital preservation • Nationale strategie: NCDD / ACDD / CCDD • Ontwikkeling E-depots (KB, DANS, Beeld en Geluid, Nationaal Archief) • Deelname aan internationale projecten (m.n. Planets)
  • 85. National aggregator infrastructure diensten tools E uropeana Thema aggregator Subdomein aggregator Regionale aggregator Nederlandse Digitale Thema aggregator Collectie Regionale aggregator (Nationale aggregator) Bron: Collectie Europa en terug (2011) tools diensten Regionale aggregator Thema aggregator subdomein aggregator RCE: musea RCE: archeologie/ Beeld en Geluid: STAP/NA: KB: architectuur audiovisueel archieven bibliotheken Al het digitale Nederlandse erfgoed in collecties/musea/archieven/instellingen
  • 86. Steering Committee DEN Users group Digitale Collectie NL/ advisor (content providers) NL aggregator (8) Representation (3) NLAggregator/DCN Representatives execution 5 Domain aggregators EUROPEANAMemory organisations National initiatives (Via contracts)
  • 87. Current status• Temporary funding 2012-2014• Annual working plan• Switch to DEA/CC0• Switch to EDM• Map interface• Implement PID’s• LOD pilot
  • 88. Based on the previous• A strong, neutral, above domains institution without executive responsibilities should be in control.• Value not just innovation but also sustainability when stimulating digitaization.• Some rewarding cq punishing instruments are necessary to assure quality.• Value collaboration, work towards ‘shared services’• Reuse what has been done achieved…
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