XML Introduction

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1. BIKASH CHHETRI 1 TOPIC “INTRODUCTION TO XML” 2. Contents   XML Basics     2 3. Question related to XML 3 4.  XML stands for Extensible Markup…
  • 2. Contents   XML Basics     2
  • 3. Question related to XML 3
  • 4.  XML stands for Extensible Markup Language.  It is a text-based markup language derived from Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).  XML was designed to store and transport data.  XML was designed to be both human- and machine-readable. 4
  • 5.  XML document are text files with a .xml extension.  They can be created in text editor.  These document reference a Document Type Definition (DTH) or schema, which defines the structure for the document . 5
  • 6.  XML is a markup language that defines set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.  So, what exactly is a markup language?  Markup is information added to a document that enhances its meaning in certain ways, in that it identifies the parts and how they relate to each other. More specifically, a markup language is a set of symbols that can be placed in the text of a document and label the parts of that document Introduction 6
  • 7. o XML can work behind the scene to simplify the creation of HTML documents for large web sites o XML can be used to exchange the information between organizations and systems o XML can easily be merged with style sheets to create almost any desired output. o Virtually, any type of data can be expressed as an XML document Introduction 7
  • 8.  A programming language consists of grammar rules and its own vocabulary which is used to create computer programs.  These programs instruct the computer to perform specific tasks.  XML does not qualify to be a programming language as it does not perform any computation or algorithms.  It is usually stored in a simple text file and is processed by special software that is capable of interpreting XML. Introduction 8
  • 9. Example 9 This snippet includes the markup symbols, or the tags such as <message>...</message> and <text>... </text>. The tags <message> and </message> mark the start and the end of the XML code fragment. The tags <text> and </text> surround the text Hello, world!.
  • 10. XML Syntax !
  • 11. XML Declaration Where version is the XML version and encoding specifies the character encoding used in the document.
  • 12. 12 XML Declaration Syntax Rules for XML Declaration 1 2 3 4 5 Reference : The basics you can find anywhere 5 Steps To Successful Storytelling Published on April 5, 2014 Featured in: Marketing & Advertising
  • 13. <?xml version="version_number" encoding="encoding_declaration" standalone="standalone_status" ?> XML – Declaration
  • 14. “ 14 Example of XML
  • 15. “ 15 Two types of Grammar in XML  Structure Define by DTD for eg.. <note></note>  Content Define by Schema For eg.. Data of XMl
  • 16. 16 1  The XML Document Type Declaration, commonly known as DTD, is a way to describe XML language precisely.  DTDs check vocabulary and validity of the structure of XML documents against grammatical rules of appropriate XML language  An XML DTD can be either specified inside the document, or it can be kept in a separate document and then liked separately. • DTD(Document type DECLERATION
  • 17. 1  XML Schema is commonly known as XML Schema Definition (XSD).  It is used to describe and validate the structure and the content of XML data.  XML schema defines the elements, attributes, and data types.  Schema element supports Namespaces.  It is similar to a database schema that describes the data in a database. • Schema
  • 18. 1 Example of Schema
  • 19. 19 19 XML Buildingblocks
  • 20. 20 20 Tags Name>Robin</NAME>
  • 21. 21 21 Elements
  • 22. 22 22 Content  Content refers to the information represented by the elements of an XML document.  Character or data content  Element content  Combination or mixed content  Example <BOOKNAME>The Painted House</BOOKNAME>
  • 23. 23 23 Attribute  Located in the start tag of elements  Provide additional information about elements  Often provide information that is not a part of data  Must be enclosed in quotes  Should I use an element or an attribute?  metadata (data about data) should be stored as attributes, and that data itself should be stored as elements
  • 24. 24 24 Comments  Comments are statements used to explain the XML code.  Example <!--PRODUCTDATA is the root element-->  The text contained within a comment entry cannot have two consecutive hyphens <!--PRODUCTDATA is the –-root element-->
  • 25. 25 25  Plain Text  Date identification  Easily processed Why Is XML Important?
  • 26. 26 26   Inherently style-free  XSL---Extensible Stylesheet Language  Different XSL formats can then be used to display the same data in different ways   Can be composed from separate entities  Modularize your documents Why Is XML Important?
  • 27. 27 27 XML describe what data is HTML display how data looks Difference between XML and HTML
  • 28. 28 Displaying XML  Comments are statements used to explain the XML code.  Example <!--PRODUCTDATA is the root element-->  The text contained within a comment entry cannot have two consecutive hyphens <!--PRODUCTDATA is the –-root element-->
  • 29.  Exchange data  Separate data  Store Data  Create new language XML Application 29
  • 30. XML can Separate Data from HTML  Store data in separate XML files  Using HTML for layout and display  Using Data Islands  Data Islands can be bound to HTML elements Benefits:  Changes in the underlying data will not require any changes to your HTML Separate data 30
  • 31. XML is used to Exchange Data  Text format  Software-independent, hardware-independent  Exchange data between incompatible systems, given that they agree on the same tag definition.  Can be read by many different types of applications Benefits:  Reduce the complexity of interpreting data  Easier to expand and upgrade a system Exchange data 31
  • 32. Store Data 32 XML can be used to Store Data  Plain text file  Store data in files or databases  Application can be written to store and retrieve information from the store  Other clients and applications can access your XML files as data sources Benefits:  Accessible to more applications
  • 33.  XML can be used to Create new Languages  WML (Wireless Markup Language) used to markup Internet applications for handheld devices like mobile phones (WAP)  MusicXML used to publishing musical scores  RSS.  MathML. Create new language 33
  • 34.  XML separates data from HTML If you need to display dynamic data in your HTML document, it will take a lot of work to edit the HTML each time the data changes. With XML, data can be stored in separate XML files.  XML simplifies data sharing In the real world, computer systems and databases contain data in incompatible formats. XML data is stored in plain text format.  XML simplifies Platform change One of the most time-consuming challenges for developers is to exchange data between incompatible systems over the Internet. Exchanging data as XML greatly reduces this complexity, since the data can be read by different incompatible applications. XML Advantage 34
  • 35. 35  XML increases data availability Upgrading to new systems (hardware or software platforms), is always time consuming. Large amounts of data must be converted and incompatible data is often lost. XML data is stored in text format. This makes it easier to expand or upgrade to new operating systems, new applications, or new browsers, without losing data.  XML can be used to create new internet languages XHTML RSS languages for news feeds
  • 36. 36 Conclusion
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